- Define the problem
- Defining scientific questions
- Define your method and scientific plan (experimental design)
- How to achieve a state of the art
- How to organize your state of the art
- State of the art with Zotero
- Make a Concept Map / Mind Map
- How to read a scientific paper
- How to summarize a scientific paper (Feynman)
First of all, you need to know the LaTeX environment:
- Writing in LaTeX and Overleaf
After reading the course on the problem and the state of the art, you must write your Research Proposal:
If you are in doctorate or master thesis (or already doctor), here are methodologies for writing papers in conferences or journals:
- Prepare your scientific paper (to start well!)
- Writing a scientific paper (general structure)
- The first drafts...
- …to the final paper
- How to transition
- How to Structure Paragraphs
- Write the Abstract
- Write the intro
- Write a state of the art
- Write the methodology (Materials & Methods)
- Write the results
- Write the discussion
- Write the conclusion
- How to cite references
The Scientific Research primarily designates all the actions undertaken with a view to producing and developing scientific knowledge. By metonymic extension, scientific research also designates the social, economic, institutional and legal framework of these actions.
Research has been defined in different ways, and while there are similarities, there does not seem to be a single, overarching definition that is embraced by all who engage in it.
Research in simple terms is the search for knowledge and the search for truth. In the formal sense, it is a systematic study of a problem attacked by a deliberately chosen strategy that begins with choosing an approach to prepare the master plan (design) by acting on it in terms of designing hypotheses research, choice of methods and techniques, selection or development of data collection. tools, data processing, interpretation and ends with the presentation of the solution(s) of the problem.
Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information in order to increase our understanding of a topic or problem." It consists of three steps: asking a question, collecting data to answer the question, and presenting an answer to the question.
The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary further defines research as “a thorough investigation or examination; in particular: investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, the revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or the practical application of such new or revised theories or laws.
Scientific research covers very heterogeneous realities.
The Frascati manual, to satisfy statistical needs, defines several types of research:
- Basic research, undertaken primarily (but not always exclusively) with a view to producing new knowledge independent of application prospects.
- Applied research, which is directed towards a practical goal or objective.
- Development activities (sometimes confused with technological research), which consists of the application of this knowledge for the manufacture of new materials, products or devices.
Of course, care must also be taken to distinguish between the different disciplinary sectors: research in philosophy is obviously very different from that in molecular biology or archeology.
According to the different forms of research encountered, different kinds of norms and rules govern scientific practices.
These norms and rules are not always legal. The sociology of science thus reports the existence of standards specific to the scientific field.
The different forms of research are also distinguished by the different “technical” standards that guide intellectual activity. It is the object of regional epistemologies to analyze and understand these local epistemic imperatives. Similarly, the "scientific method" is not there even under different research regimes.
Research obviously aims to produce scientific knowledge. But this knowledge can take various forms: it can be publications, reports, patents, oral communications, etc.
Finally, this knowledge can be incorporated into new machines, instruments or devices. It is all these products which, by being distributed within the scientific community, allow the researcher to be recognized by his peers, and to receive in return the means necessary to continue his work.